Oral stage (0-2 years):
- A new-born baby’s primary focus is the mouth which is also the infant’s primary pleasure-seeking centre.
- The baby obtains food with the help of the mouth and achieves oral-gratification through feeding, babbling and thumb-sucking
- .During these early years, a person’s basic feelings about the world are initiated.
Anal stage (2-3 years):
- In this stage the child learns to respond to some societal demands the principal demand being that the child learns to control the bodily functions of urination and defecation.
- Children experience pleasure in moving their bowels and this stage provides the foundation for conflict between the id and ego.
Phallic stage (4-5 years):
- The main focus is on genitals and the children learn the differences between males and females. They come to know of sexuality and of the relationship between their parents.
- Boys experience Oedipus Complex wherein the boy child is attracted towards the mother. The child shows intense love for the mother, hostility towards the father and experiences the consequent fear of castration by the father.
- Girls experience Electra Complex wherein the girl child attaches her love to her father, attempts to symbolically marry him and raise a family.
- Resolution of the Oedipus Complex and the Electra Complex occurs with the development of identification of the same sex parents.
- Boys give up sexual feelings for mothers and accept their fathers as role models whereas girls give up sexual feelings for fathers and identify with their mothers.
Latency stage (6-12 years):
- The child grows physically but sexual urges remain dormant or inactive.
- The child’s energy is channelized into social or achieve-oriented activities.
Genital stage (12-18 years):
- Maturity in psychosexual development is achieved. People learn to deal with the members of the opposite sex in a sexually and socially mature manner.
- The sexuality, fears and repressed feelings of earlier stages are shown again.
What is Fixation?
When a child fails to pass successfully from one stage to another then it results in fixation to that stage and the child’s development gets hooked at an earlier stage.
What is Regression?
When an individual’s resolution of problems is less than accurate at any stage then it results in regression wherein the person shows behaviours typical of a less mature stage of development.